Komodo Island is part of the Lesser Sunda chain of islands and forms part of the Komodo National Park Particularly notable here is the native Komodo dragon In addition, the island is a popular destination for diving administratively, it is part of the East Nusa Tenggara.
The island is famous not only for its heritage of convicts but also for the unique fauna which roam it. The Komodo dragon the world’s largest living lizard, takes its name from the island. A type of monitor lizard it inhabits Komodo and some of the smaller surrounding islands, attracting many tourists.
Moreover, the Park includes one of the richest marine environments including coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, seamounts, and semi-enclosed bays. These habitats harbor more than 1,000 species of fish, some 260 species of reef-building coral, and 70 species of sponges. Dugong, sharks, manta rays, at least 14 species of whales, dolphins, and sea turtles also make Komodo National Park their home.
Threats to terrestrial biodiversity include the increasing pressure on forest cover and water resources as the local human population has increased 800% over the past 60 years. In addition, the Timor deer population, the preferred prey source for the endangered Komodo dragon, is still being poached. Destructive fishing practices such as dynamite-, cyanide, and compressor fishing severely threaten the Park’s marine resources by destroying both the habitat (coral reefs) and the resource itself (fish and invertebrate stocks). The present situation in the Park is characterized by reduced but continuing destructive fishing practices primarily by immigrant fishers, and high pressure on demersal stocks like lobsters, shellfish, groupers and napoleon wrasse. Pollution inputs, ranging from raw sewage to chemicals, are increasing and may pose a major threat in the future.